git init directory : creates empty Git repo in specified directory. Run with no arguments to initialize the current directory as a git repository.
git clone repo : Clone repo located at <repo> onto local machine. Original repo can be located on the local filesystem or on a remote machine via HTTP or SSH.
git config user.name name : Define author name to be used for all commits in current repo. Devs commonly use –global flag to set config options for current user.
git add directory : Stage all changes in <directory> for the next commit. Replace <directory> with a <file> to change a specific file.
git commit -m "message" : Commit the staged snapshot, but instead of launching a text editor, use <message> as the commit message.
git status : Lists which files are staged, unstaged, and untracked.
git log: Display the entire commit history using the default format. For customization see additional options.
git diff : show unstaged changes between your index and working directory.
git revert commit : Create new commit that undoes all of the changes made in <commit>, then apply it to the current branch.
git reset file : Remove <file> from the staging area, but leave the working directory unchanged. This unstages a file without overwriting any changes.
git clean -n : Shows which files would be removed from working directory. Use the -! flag in place of the -n flag to execute the clean.
Rewriting Git History
git commit --amend : Replace the last commit with the staged changes and last commit combined. Use with nothing staged to edit the last commit’s message.
git rebase base : Rebase the current branch onto <base>. <base> can be a commit ID, a branch name, a tag, or a relative reference to HEAD.
git reflog : Show a log of changes to the local repository’s HEAD. Add –relative-date flag to show date info or –all to show all refs.
git branch : List all of the branches in your repo. Add a <branch> argument to create a new branch with the name <branch>.
git checkout -b branch : Create and checkout a new branch named <branch>. Drop the -b flag to checkout an existing branch.
git merge branch : Merge <branch> into the current branch.
git remote add name url : Create a new connection to a remote repo. After adding a remote, you can use <name> as a shortcut to <url> in other commands.
git fetch remote branch : Fetches a specific <branch>, from the repo. Leave off <branch> to fetch all remote refs.
git pull remote : Fetch the specified remote’s copy of current branch and immediately merge it into the local copy.
git push remote branch : Push the branch to <remote>, along with necessary commits and objects. Creates named branch in the remote repo if it doesn’t exist.
git config --global user.name name : Define the author name to be used for all commits by the current user.
git config --global user.email email : Define the author email to be used for all commits by the current user.
git config --global alias.alias-name git-command : Create shortcut for a Git command. e.g., alias.glog “log –graph –oneline” will set “git-log” equivalent to “git log –graph –oneline”
git config --system core.editor editor : Set the text editor used by commands for all users on the machine. <editor> arg should be the command that launches the desired editor (e.g., vi)
git config --global --edit : open the global configuration file in a text editor for manual editing.
git log limit : Limit number of commits by <limit>. e.g., “git log -5” will limit to 5 commits.
git log --oneline : Condense each commit to a single line.
git log --stat : Include which files were altered and the relative number of lines that were added or deleted from each of them.
git log -p : Display the full diff of each commit.
git log --author="pattern" : Search for commits by a particular author.
git log --grep="pattern" : Search for commits with a commit message that matches <pattern>.
git log since..until : Show commits that occur between <since> and <until>. Args can be a commit ID, branch name, HEAD, or any other kind of revision reference.
git log -- file : Only display commits that have the specified file.
git log --graph --decorate : –graph flag draws a text based graph of commits on left side of commit msgs. –decorate adds names of branches or tags of commits shown.
git diff HEAD : Show difference between working directory and last commit.
git diff --cached : Show difference between staged changes and last commit.
git reset : Reset staging area to match most recent commit, but leave the working directory unchanged.
git reset --hard : Reset staging area and working directory to match most recent commit and overwrites all changes in the working directory.
git reset commit : Move the current branch tip backward to <commit>, reset the staging area to match, but leave the working directory alone.
git reset --hard commit : Same as previous, but resets both the staging area and working directory to match. Delete uncommitted changes, and all commits after <commit>.
git rebase -i base : Interactively rebase current branch onto <base>. Launches editor to enter commands for how each commit will be transferred to the new base.
git pull --rebase remote : Fetch the remote’s copy of current branch and rebases it into the local copy. Uses git rebase instead of merge to integrate the branches.
git push remote --force : Forces the git push even if it results in a non-fast-forward merge. Do not use the –force flag unless you’re absolutely sure you know what you’re doing.
git push remote -all : Push all of your local branches to the specified remote.
git push remote --tags : Tags aren’t automatically pushed when you push a branch or use the –all flag. The –tags flag sends all of your local tags to the remote repo.
* : I pulled this cheat sheet from atlassian.com/git some time ago. I can’t seem to find the original cheat sheet among their documentation, but you can find some of these commands within their Git Glossary, and they have some excellent tutorials I’m going through now myself. You can access them with the link I provided below entitled “Git Tutorials” from Atlassian. There are also some good tutorials on Bitbucket. Bitbucket is like GitHub and is just another Git/Mercurial alternative. The only real difference between the two platforms is in their approaches to pricing. To learn more, you can read my article entitled “Why I chose to use BitBucket for personal and client projects”.
This list of git commands is only the tip of the iceberg. Check out the links below to learn more about Git.
Git Glossary: Atlassian Git (Commands) Glossary
Git Tutorials: Atlassian Git Tutorials
Why I chose to use BitBucket for personal and client projects: Maria D. Campbell, June 30, 2015, Maria’s Developer Blog